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Is Roanoke City Tap Water Safe to Drink?

Yes! Generally Safe to Drink*

LAST UPDATED: 7:47 pm, July 20, 2022
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Table of Contents

Can You Drink Tap Water in Roanoke City?

Yes, Roanoke City's tap water is generally considered safe to drink as Roanoke City has no active health based violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) that we are aware of. Other factors such as lead piping in a home, or low levels of pollutants on immunocompromised individuals, should also be considered, however. To find more recent info we might have, you can check out our boil water notice page or the city's water provider website.

According the EPA’s ECHO database, from April 30, 2019 to June 30, 2022, Roanoke City's water utility, Western Virginia Water Authority, had 2 health-based violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act. For more details on the violations, please see our violation history section below. The last violation for Roanoke City was resolved on March 31, 2020. This assessment is based on the Western Virginia Water Authority water system, other water systems in the city may have different results.

While tap water that meets the EPA health guidelines generally won’t make you sick to your stomach, it can still contain regulated and unregulated contaminants present in trace amounts that could potentially cause health issues over the long-run. These trace contaminants may also impact immunocompromised and vulnerable individuals.

The EPA is reviewing if it’s current regulations around pollutant levels in tap water are strict enough, and the health dangers posed by unregulated pollutants, like PFAS.

Water Quality Report for Roanoke City Tap Water

The most recent publicly available numbers for measured contaminant levels in Roanoke City tap water are in its 2020 Water Quality Report. As you can see, there are levels which the EPA considers to be acceptable, but being below the maximum allowable level doesn’t necessarily mean the water is healthy.

Lead in tap water, for example, is currently allowed at up to 15ppb by the EPA, but it has set the ideal goal for lead at zero. This highlights how meeting EPA standards doesn’t necessarily mean local tap water is healthy.

EPA regulations continue to change as it evaluates the long term impacts of chemicals and updates drinking water acceptable levels. The rules around arsenic, as well as, lead and copper are currently being re-evaluated.

There are also a number of "emerging" contaminants that are not currently. For example, PFAS (Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), for which the EPA has issued a health advisory. PFAS are called "forever chemicals" since they tend not to break down in the environment or the human body and can accumulate over time.

We recommend looking at the contaminants present in Roanoke City's water quality reports, or getting your home's tap water tested to see if you should be filtering your water.

Roanoke City Tap Water Safe Drinking Water Act Violation History - Prior 10 Years

Below is a ten year history of violations for the water system named Western Virginia Water Authority for Roanoke City in Virginia. For more details please see the "What do these Violations Mean?" section below.

From Jan. 1, 2020 to March 31, 2020, Roanoke City had 1 health-based Safe Drinking Water Act violation with the violation category being Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, more specifically, the violation code was Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, Average which falls into the Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule rule code group, and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule rule code family for the following contaminant code: TTHM.

From July 1, 2019 to Sept. 30, 2019, Roanoke City had 1 health-based Safe Drinking Water Act violation with the violation category being Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, more specifically, the violation code was Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, Average which falls into the Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule rule code group, and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule rule code family for the following contaminant code: TTHM.

From July 1, 2017 to Sept. 30, 2017, Roanoke City had 1 health-based Safe Drinking Water Act violation with the violation category being Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, more specifically, the violation code was Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, Average which falls into the Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule rule code group, and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule rule code family for the following contaminant code: Total Haloacetic Acids (HAA5).

Is there Lead in Roanoke City Water?

Based on the EPA’s ECHO Database, 90% of the samples taken from the Roanoke City water system, Western Virginia Water Authority, between sample start date and sample end date, were at or below, 0.00151 mg/L of lead in Roanoke City water. This is 10.1% of the 0.015 mg/L action level. This means 10% of the samples taken from Roanoke City contained more lead.

While Roanoke City water testing may have found 0.00151 mg/L of lead in its water, that does not mean your water source has the same amount. The amount of lead in water in a city can vary greatly from neighborhood to neighborhood, or even building to building. Many buildings, particularly older ones, have lead pipes or service lines which can be a source of contamination. To find out if your home has lead, we recommend getting you water tested.

No amount of lead in water is healthy, only less dangerous. As lead accumulates in our bodies over time, even exposure to relatively small amounts can have negative health effects. For more information, please check out our Lead FAQ page.

Are there PFAS in Roanoke City Tap Water?

Currently, testing tap water for PFAS isn’t mandated on a national level. We do have a list of military bases where there have been suspected or confirmed leaks. There appears to be at least one military base - Radford Army Ammunition Plant - near Roanoke City with suspected leaks.

With many potential sources of PFAS in tap water across the US, the best information we currently have about which cities have PFAS in their water is this ewg map, which you can check to see if Roanoke City has been evaluated for yet.

Our stance is better safe than sorry, and that it makes sense to try to purify the tap water just in case.

Roanoke City SDWA Violation History Table - Prior 10 Years

Compliance Period Status Health-Based? Category Code Code Rule Code Contaminant Code Rule Group Code Rule Family Code
01/01/2020 - 03/31/2020 Resolved Yes Maximum Contaminant Level Violation (MCL) Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, Average (02) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (220) TTHM (2950) Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (200) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (220)
07/01/2019 - 09/30/2019 Resolved Yes Maximum Contaminant Level Violation (MCL) Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, Average (02) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (220) TTHM (2950) Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (200) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (220)
07/01/2017 - 09/30/2017 Resolved Yes Maximum Contaminant Level Violation (MCL) Maximum Contaminant Level Violation, Average (02) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (220) Total Haloacetic Acids (HAA5) (2456) Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (200) Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (220)

What do these Violations Mean?

Safe Drinking Water Act Violations categories split into two groups, health based, and non-health based. Generally, health based violations are more serious, though non-health based violations can also be cause for concern.

Health Based Violations

  1. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) - maximum allowed contaminant level was exceeded.
  2. Maximum residual disinfectant levels (MRDLs) - maximum allowed disinfectant level was exceeded.
  3. Other violations (Other) - the exact required process to reduce the amounts of contaminants in drinking water was not followed.

Non-Health Based Violations

  1. Monitoring and reporting violations (MR, MON) - failure to conduct the required regular monitoring of drinking water quality, and/or to submit monitoring results on time.
  2. Public notice violations (Other) - failure to immediately alert consumers if there is a serious problem with their drinking water that may pose a risk to public health.
  3. Other violations (Other) - miscellaneous violations, such as failure to issue annual consumer confidence reports or maintain required records.

SDWA Table Key

Field Description
Compliance Period Dates of the compliance period.
Status Current status of the violation.
  • Resolved - The violation has at least one resolving enforcement action. In SDWIS, this indicates that either the system has returned to compliance from the violation, the rule that was violated was no longer applicable, or no further action was needed.
  • Archived - The violation is not Resolved, but is more than five years past its compliance period end date. In keeping with the Enforcement Response Policy, the violation no longer contributes to the public water system's overall compliance status. Unresolved violations are also marked as Archived when a system ceases operations (becomes inactive).
  • Addressed - The violation is not Resolved or Archived, and is addressed by one or more formal enforcement actions.
  • Unaddressed - The violation is not Resolved or Archived, and has not been addressed by formal enforcement.
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Health-Based? Whether the violation is health based.
Category Code
The category of violation that is reported.
  • TT - Treatment Technique Violation
  • MRDL - Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level
  • Other - Other Violation
  • MCL - Maximum Contaminant Level Violation
  • MR - Monitoring and Reporting
  • MON - Monitoring Violation
  • RPT - Reporting Violation
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Code A full description of violation codes can be accessed in the SDWA_REF_CODE_VALUES (CSV) table.
Contaminant Code A code value that represents a contaminant for which a public water system has incurred a violation of a primary drinking water regulation.
Rule Code Code for a National Drinking Water rule.
  • 110 - Total Coliform Rule
  • 121 - Surface Water Treatment Rule
  • 122 - Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
  • 123 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
  • 130 - Filter Backwash Rule
  • 140 - Ground Water Rule
  • 210 - Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 220 - Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 230 - Total Trihalomethanes
  • 310 - Volatile Organic Chemicals
  • 331 - Nitrates
  • 332 - Arsenic
  • 333 - Inorganic Chemicals
  • 320 - Synthetic Organic Chemicals
  • 340 - Radionuclides
  • 350 - Lead and Copper Rule
  • 410 - Public Notice Rule
  • 420 - Consumer Confidence Rule
  • 430 - Miscellaneous
  • 500 - Not Regulated
  • 111 - Revised Total Coliform Rule
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Rule Group Code Code that uniquely identifies a rule group.
  • 120 - Surface Water Treatment Rules
  • 130 - Filter Backwash Rule
  • 140 - Groundwater Rule
  • 210 - Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 220 - Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 230 - Total Trihalomethanes
  • 310 - Volatile Organic Chemicals
  • 320 - Synthetic Organic Chemicals
  • 330 - Inorganic Chemicals
  • 340 - Radionuclides
  • 350 - Lead and Copper Rule
  • 400 - Other
  • 500 - Not Regulated
  • 110 - Total Coliform Rules
  • 410 - Public Notice Rule
  • 420 - Consumer Confidence Rule
  • 430 - Miscellaneous
show details
Rule Family Code Code for rule family.
  • 100 - Microbials
  • 200 - Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 300 - Chemicals
  • 400 - Other
  • 500 - Not Regulated
show details

For more clarification please visit the EPA's data dictionary.

Roanoke City Water - Frequently Asked Questions

HOW ARE THE STANDARDS SET?
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) at very stringent levels. In developing the standards, EPA assumes that the average adult drinks 2 liters of water each day throughout a 70-year life span. EPA generally sets MCLs at levels that will result in no adverse health effects for some contaminants or a one-in-ten-thousand to one-in-one-million chance of having the described health effect for other contaminants. The tables of data on pages 10 -39 summarize water-testing results from 2020 or the most recent reporting year for both regulated and non-regulated substances. Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs. There is no State or Federal MCL for sodium. Monitoring is required to provide information to consumers and health officials that are concerned about sodium intake due to dietary restrictions. The EPA recommended optimal level of sodium is less than 20 ppm, established for people on a “strict” sodium intake diet. The amount of sodium detected in each water system is listed in the data charts. The Western Virginia Water Authority constantly monitors its water supplies for various contaminants to meet all regulatory requirements. All regulated substances must be tested annually (or triennially) for small systems) except for lead and copper and SOCs, which must be tested every three years, and radiologicals, which must be tested every six to nine years. The TTHMs/HAA5s were derived from running annual averages.
WHAT CAUSES DISCOLORED WATER?
Changes in water pressure in water systems, such as when water mains break or fire hydrants are used or flushed, can occasionally cause drinking water to be discolored. The discoloration is caused by sediments in pipes mixing with clear water. The sediments occur naturally from the oxidation of iron in pipes. While discolored water is ordinarily safe to drink, it is best to flush any discolored water from pipes by turning on all cold-water faucets in your home or business. Avoid turning on hot-water faucets so the discolored water is not drawn into water heaters. If you notice evidence of a water main break or leaking fire hydrant, please call 540.853.5700. As water naturally flows over rocks and through the soil, it picks up minerals. The more calcium and magnesium present, the harder your water. While water hardness is not a safety issue, you may notice increased mineral build-up or soap residue with harder water. Hardness can be expressed as PPM - parts per million or GPG - grains per gallon.
WHAT IS MY WATER HARDNESS?
As water naturally flows over rocks and through the soil, it picks up minerals. The more calcium and magnesium present, the harder your water. While water hardness is not a safety issue, you may notice increased mineral build-up or soap residue with harder water. Hardness can be expressed as PPM - parts per million or GPG - grains per gallon.
HOW TO CHECK FOR A TOILET LEAK
Toilets are the number one source of water leaks inside the home so this is the best place to start a leak detection. Because a toilet leak can waste up to 200 gallons of water per day, it is important to regularly test your toilets and quickly repair any leaks you discover. To determine if a toilet is leaking, place some dye such as food coloring, Kool-Aid, cola or brewed coffee in the tank of the toilet before you go to bed. Do not flush or use the toilet during the test. If you see any of the color in the bowl of the toilet the next morning, then you know you have a leak that needs to be repaired. If you discover that you have a toilet leak, make sure the lift chain is free of kinks and that you don’t have any mineral buildup around your valves that might prevent them from sealing properly. You can also use the adjustment screw on the overflow pipe to lower the water level in the tank to keep it from flowing into the overflow pipe. Most overflow pipes have a line on the pipe that indicates where the water level needs to be. If the flapper valve or plunger ball isn’t properly sealing at the bottom of the toilet, you will also get leaks. Parts are available at your local hardware store to replace these items.
HOW DO I CONTACT ROANOKE CITY CUSTOMER SERVICE?
To contact customer service for the Roanoke City water provider, Western Virginia Water Authority, please use the information below.
By Mail: 1502 Brownlee Ave SE
ROANOKE, VA, 24014
HOW TO PAY BILL FOR WESTERN VIRGINIA WATER AUTHORITY
Already have an account?

Existing customers can login to their Western Virginia Water Authority account to pay their Roanoke City water bill by clicking here.

Want to create a new account?

If you want to pay your Western Virginia Water Authority bill online and haven't made an account yet, you can create an account online. Please click here to create your account to pay your Roanoke City water bill.

Want to pay without an account?

If you don't want to make an account, or can't remember your account, you can make a one-time payment towards your Roanoke City water bill without creating an account using a one time payment portal with your account number and credit or debit card. Click here to make a one time payment.

HOW TO START & STOP ROANOKE CITY WATER SERVICE
Starting Your Service

Moving to a new house or apartment in Roanoke City means you will often need to put the water in your name with Western Virginia Water Authority. In order to put the water in your name, please click the link to the start service form below. Start service requests for water bills typically take two business days.

Start Service Form

Want to create a new account?

Leaving your house or apartment in Roanoke City means you will likely need to take your name off of the water bill with Western Virginia Water Authority. In order to take your name off the water bill, please click the link to the stop service form below. Stop service for water bills requests typically take two business days.

Stop Service Form

The estimated price of bottled water

$1.50 in USD (1.5-liter)

USER SUBMITTED RATINGS

Roanoke City tap water
  • Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility 25% Low
  • Water Pollution 36% Low
  • Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility 75% High
  • Water Quality 64% High

The above data is comprised of subjective, user submitted opinions about the water quality and pollution in Roanoke City, measured on a scale from 0% (lowest) to 100% (highest).

Related FAQS

Roanoke City Water Quality Report (Consumer Confidence Report)

The EPA mandates that towns and cities consistently monitor and test their tap water. They must report their findings in an annual Consumer Confidence Report. Below is the most recent water quality report from Roanoke City's Water. If you would like to see the original version of the report, please click here.

2021 Water Quality Report

www.westernvawater.org

info@westernvawater.org

540.853.5700

Serving customers in the City of Roanoke and the Counties of Roanoke, Franklin & Botetourt, Virginia

About This Report

The Western Virginia Water Authority supplies customers in the City of Roanoke and the Counties of Roanoke, Franklin and Botetourt with an annual water quality report. This provides you with information about the source of your water, what it contains and how it compares to the standards set by regulatory agencies based on data collected during calendar year 2020 or the most recent testing period.

The Water Quality Division of the Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to deliver safe drinking water. Once again, the Water Authority is in full compliance with all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements.

On July 1, 2004 the Western Virginia Water Authority was formed from the former utility departments of the City of Roanoke and Roanoke County. In November 2009 Franklin County joined the Water Authority. Botetourt County joined in 2015 offering a larger regional approach to meeting the communities’ water and wastewater needs.

The Authority has earned the highest industry awards for both water and wastewater, implemented energy saving measures across all departments, focused on cleaning the sanitary sewer lines and rehabilitating aging water distribution pipes.

Reaching out to the Western Virginia Water Authority

Executive Director

The Western Virginia Water Authority’s Executive Director, Michael McEvoy, oversees the daily treatment and delivery of 19-million gallons of drinking water and the collection and treatment of 37-million gallons of wastewater a day.

Authority Board of Directors

The Western Virginia Water Authority’s Board of Directors, appointed by the member localities, governs the Authority. Representatives from the City of Roanoke include Mr. John P. Bradshaw, Jr., Mr. Bob Cowell and Mr. Harvey Brookins. The Roanoke County representatives include Mr. Don Davis, Mr. Dan O’Donnell and Mr. Randall Hancock. Mrs. Shirley Holland represents Franklin County, and Mr. Hunter Young represents Botetourt County.

Board meetings are held on the third Thursday of each month (with the exception of August and December) at 601 S. Jefferson Street. The Board meetings are open to the public.

Customer Service

Our customer service representatives are available Monday-Friday from 8am - 5pm. If you have a water or sewer emergency after hours, calls to the Water Authority are answered by Roanoke County’s 911 Dispatch Center. 540.853.5700 | info@westernvawater.org

601 S. Jefferson Street • Suite 200 • Roanoke, VA 24011 www.westernvawater.org

connect with us

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Table of Contents

2021 Water Quality Report

Contact Information

2

How Standards are Set

3

Information about Specific Tests

4

Definitions

5

Source Water Assessment

6

Backflow Education

6

UCMR4 Data

7

Roanoke Area System Water Quality Data

8 -17

Botetourt County System Water Quality Data

18 - 21

Franklin County Systems Water Quality Data

22 - 39

Water Conservation, Leak Detection & Outreach

40

Testing Your Water

In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribes regulations which limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water which must provide the same protection for public health. All drinking water, including bottled drinking water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk.

More information about drinking water is available through these sources

Virginia Department of Health: (Roanoke & Botetourt area) 540.463.7136

Virginia Department of Health: (Franklin County) 434.836.8416

Center for Disease Control and Prevention: 1.800.311.3435 404.639.3311 or 404.639.3312 (TTY)

Roanoke Environmental Health Department: 540.857.7663

EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 800.426.4791

How are the standards set?

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) at very stringent levels. In developing the standards, EPA assumes that the average adult drinks 2 liters of water each day throughout a 70-year life span. EPA generally sets MCLs at levels that will result in no adverse health effects for some contaminants or a one-in-ten-thousand to one-in-one-million chance of having the described health effect for other contaminants.

The tables of data on pages 10 -39 summarize water-testing results from 2020 or the most recent reporting year for both regulated and non-regulated substances. Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs.

There is no State or Federal MCL for sodium. Monitoring is required to provide information to consumers and health officials that are concerned about sodium intake due to dietary restrictions. The EPA recommended optimal level of sodium is less than 20 ppm, established for people on a “strict” sodium intake diet. The amount of sodium detected in each water system is listed in the data charts.

The Western Virginia Water Authority constantly monitors its water supplies for various contaminants to meet all regulatory requirements. All regulated substances must be tested annually (or triennially) for small systems) except for lead and copper and SOCs, which must be tested every three years, and radiologicals, which must be tested every six to nine years. The TTHMs/HAA5s were derived from running annual averages.

3

Cryptosporidium & Giardia

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are microscopic organisms that can cause fever, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms when ingested. The organisms come from animal and human wastes and are eliminated through water filtration and disinfection. Even though the presence of these organisms is not regulated by the state or federal government, the Water Authority has tested for these organisms. Giardia, 0.2 cyst per 1 liter, was detected in the raw (untreated) water at Falling Creek in March 2016 and 8 cyst per 1 liter in June 2017. Cryptosporidium was detected in the raw (untreated) water at Carvins Cove (0.1 cyst per 1 liter in January 2016 and 0.1 cyst per 1 liter in February 2016).

Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons, such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbiological contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791).

What Causes Discolored Water?

Changes in water pressure in water systems, such as when water mains break or fire hydrants are used or flushed, can occasionally cause drinking water to be discolored. The discoloration is caused by sediments in pipes mixing with clear water. The sediments occur naturally from the oxidation of iron in pipes.

While discolored water is ordinarily safe to drink, it is best to flush any discolored water from pipes by turning on all cold-water faucets in your home or business. Avoid turning on hot-water faucets so the discolored water is not drawn into water heaters.

If you notice evidence of a water main break or leaking fire hydrant, please call 540.853.5700.

What is my Water Hardness?

As water naturally flows over rocks and through the soil, it picks up minerals. The more calcium and magnesium present, the harder your water. While water hardness is not a safety issue, you may notice increased mineral build-up or soap residue with harder water. Hardness can be expressed as PPM - parts per million or GPG - grains per gallon.

PPM

GPG

Rating

 

 

 

0 - 75

0 - 4.3

Soft

 

 

 

76 - 150

4.4 - 8.7

Moderately Hard

 

 

 

151 - 300

8.8 - 17.5

Hard

 

 

 

over 300

17.6 +

Very Hard

 

 

 

Lead & Copper Testing

Quality water begins at the source. It is important that the Western Virginia Water Authority knows and understands the water chemistry from each source, closely monitors the treatment process and understands the pipe material that the water can flow through. This is especially important regarding lead and copper.

Copper is a nutritionally essential element, but at high levels, copper can cause gastrointestinal difficulties such as nausea and diarrhea. Elevated levels of lead, if present, can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily associated with materials and components in service lines and home plumbing.

The Authority maintains over 1500 miles of pipes up to and including the lines going to the customer’s water meter. Pipe materials in our system can be cast iron, ductile iron or pvc. We do not know of any lead pipes in our distribution system. However, customers, particularly those in older homes, may have lead plumbing in their homes or pipes that were joined with lead solder.

We treat the water with corrosion control or adjust the pH of the water so that pipes in our distribution system and the customers’ pipes in their homes are protected.

The Western Virginia Water Authority is responsible for providing high quality drinking water but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting in your pipes for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes or until it becomes cold or reaches a steady temperature before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested.

Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lead.

4

Terms Used in This Water Quality Report

Action Level (AL): The concentration of a contaminant that triggers treatment or other requirement that a water system must follow.

Combined Radium: Radium 226 + Radium 228

E. coli: Bacteria from human and animal fecal waste

HAA5s: Haloacetic acids.

LRAA: Locational Running Annual Average

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL):

The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to the MCLG as feasible using the best available treatment technology.

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.

Maximum Residual Disinfection Level (MRDL): The highest level of a disinfection allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.

mg/L: Milligrams per liter, also referred to as parts per million (for example, one minute in two years).

ND: Analyte was not detected or was below the method detection limit of the laboratory’s instrumentation.

NTUs: Nephelometric Turbidity Units; a measure of

turbidity.

P/A: Present or Absent

pCi/L: Picocuries per liter is a measure of the radioactivity in water.

ppm: One part per million, also referred to as mg/L, (for example, one minute in two years).

ppb: One part per billion, also referred to as μg/L (for example, one minute in 2,000 years).

TTHMs: Total Trihalomethanes

Treatment Technique (TT): A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.

μg/L: Micrograms per liter, also referred to as parts per billion (for example, one minute in 2,000 years).

μmhos/cm: Micromhos per centimeter; a measure of conductivity.

Substance

Source of Substance

Alkalinity

Measurement of naturally occurring carbonates

Antimony

Discharge from petroleum refineries; fire retardants; ceramics;

 

electronics; solder

Arsenic

Erosion of natural deposits; runoff from orchards, runoff from glass

 

and electronics production wastes

Barium

Discharge from drilling wastes; discharge from metal refineries;

 

erosion of natural deposits

Beryllium

Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories; discharge

 

from electrical, aerospace, and defense industries

Cadmium

Corrosion of galvanized pipes; erosion of natural deposits; discharge

 

from metal refineries; runoff from waste batteries and paints

Chlorate

By-product of treating drinking water with chlorine dioxide

Chlorine

Required disinfectant added during treatment process to eliminate

 

bacteria

Chlorite

By-product of treating drinking water with chlorine dioxide

Chromium

Discharge from steel and pulp mills; erosion of natural deposits

Conductivity

Physical property of water

Copper

Natural\industrial deposits, plumbing, wood preservatives

Corrosivity

Physical property of water that occurs when water reacts with metal

Ethylbenzene

Discharge from petroleum refineries

Fecal Coliforms

Human and animal waste

Fluoride

Erosion of natural deposits; water additive which promotes strong

 

teeth; discharge from aluminum and fertilizer factories

Gross Alpha

Erosion of natural deposits

Gross Beta

Decay of natural and man-made deposits

HAA5s

By-product of drinking water chlorination

Hardness

Measurement of naturally occurring hardness metals

Iron

Naturally occurring in the environment

Lead

Natural\industrial deposits, plumbing solder, brass alloy in faucets

Manganese

Naturally occurring in the environment

Orthophosphate (as P)

Corrosion inhibitor added during treatment process

Radium 226/228

Erosion of natural deposits

Selenium

Discharge from petroleum refineries; erosion of natural deposits;

 

discharge from mines

Sodium

Naturally occurring in the environment

Styrene

Discharge from rubber and plastic factories; leaching from landfills

Thallium

Leaching from ore-processing sites; discharge from electronics, glass,

 

and drug factories

Toluene

Discharge from petroleum factories

Total Coliforms

Naturally present in the environment

Total Nitrate & Nitrite

Run-off from fertilizer use; leaching from septic tanks, sewage; erosion

(as N)

of natural deposits

TTHMs

By-product of drinking water chlorination

Vinyl Chloride

Leaching from PVC pipes; discharge from plastic factories

Xylene

Discharge from petroleum factories; discharge from chemical factory

Zinc

Naturally occurring in the environment

1,2-dichlorobenzene

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

1,2,4-trichlorobenzene

Discharge from textile finishing factories

5

Source Water Assessment

As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity. Water from surface sources is treated to make it drinkable while groundwater may or may not require any treatment.

Contaminants in source water may be naturally occurring substances, or may come from:

  • Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife;
  • Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally-occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming;
  • Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, and residential uses;
  • Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater runoff, and septic systems; and
  • Radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally-occurring or be the result of oil and gas production and mining activities.

The Western Virginia Water Authority has worked with the Virginia Department of Health to determine our water sources susceptibility to contaminants. The assessment is a requirement of the Virginia Department of Health’s (VDH) Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) in accordance with the 1996 Amendments of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

The assessment determined that Crystal Spring, Falling Creek and Carvins Cove are susceptible to contamination based on land use activities and potential types of contaminants in these areas. This designation does not mean that the source water has been impacted or that it will be impacted. It does mean that if there is a release of pollutants in the assessment area, the source water could be impacted.

The VDH also completed a source water assessment of Spring Hollow Reservoir’s water source, the Roanoke River. This assessment determined that the Roanoke River may be susceptible to contamination because it is surface water exposed to a wide array of contaminants at varying concentrations. Also, changing hydrologic, hydraulic and atmospheric conditions promote migration of contaminants from land use activities of concern.

The assessment also determined that the Water Authority’s wells might be susceptible to contamination because they are located in areas that promote migration of contaminants from land use activities of concern. More specific information about these reports may be obtained by contacting the Western Virginia Water Authority’s Water Quality Division at 540.853.5700.

6

Backflow Prevention &

Cross-Connection Identification

A plumbing cross-connection is an actual or potential connection between the public water supply and any source of contamination or pollutant. Without proper plumbing precautions, contaminated substances could backflow into the public system and your drinking water supply through this connection.

Water travelling through the Authority’s distribution system is pressurized. If the water system loses pressure, such as during a water main break, system maintenance or fire hydrant usage/testing, the flow of the water may be reversed. If a customer has made a cross-connection with hazardous substances or even non potable water, these substances can backflow into the public water system and create a risk to public health.

What You Can Do To Protect

Your Drinking Water

Help us identify potential locations where backflow can occur. You can complete a simple Backflow Prevention Survey on-line at www.

westernvawater.org.

If necessary, contact the Water Authority to schedule a free assessment with our staff to assist you in finding and removing any potential cross-connection sources.

Remove any cross-connections you find or install backflow prevention devices (available at hardware stores) where needed. A Water Authority representative is available to assist you with this process if needed.

If you have a backflow prevention device installed by a certified plumber, have it tested annually or after any repairs.

Questions about backflow prevention? email us at backflow@westernvawater.org call us at 540.853.5700

Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring - UCMR4

The following substances were tested in Western Virginia Water Authority sources during calendar year 2019 as part of the unregulated contaminants monitoring.

Unregulated contaminants are those for which EPA has not established drinking water standards. Unregulated contaminant monitoring helps EPA to determine where certain contaminants occur and whether the Agency should consider regulating those contaminants in the future.

Parameter

Units

Carvins

Spring

Crystal

Falling

Garden

LaBellevue

Longridge

Muse

North

Starkey

Starkey

City of

 

Cove

Hollow

Spring

Creek

City Well 2

Well 7

Well 2

Spring

Lakes

Well 1

Well 2

Salem

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germanium

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manganese

ppb

ND

0.439

ND

8.63

ND

ND

16.7

ND

4.6

40.8

45.8

0.82-2.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorpyrifos

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dimethipin

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethoprop

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oxyfluorfen

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Profenofos

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tebuconazole

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Permethrin, cis & trans

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tribufos

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Butylated hydroxyanisole

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

o-Toluidine

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quinoline

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1-Butanol

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-Methoxyethanol

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-Propen-1-ol

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bromochloroacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND-2.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bromodichloroacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND - 1.99

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorodibromoacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND - 0.348

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dibromoacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dichloroacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

2.56 - 28.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monobromoacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monochloroacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND - 3.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tribromoacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trichloroacetic acid

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

2.85 - 27.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bromide (Raw)

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOC (Raw)

ppb

 

 

 

 

 

ND - 2510

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microcystins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatoxin -a

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cylindrospermopsin

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Microcystins and

ppb

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Nodularins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drinking Water

Systems in the

Roanoke Valley

The Western Virginia Water Authority utilizes four surface water sources and multiple springs and wells as drinking water sources in the Roanoke Valley to serve customers in the City of Roanoke and the Counties of Roanoke, Franklin and Botetourt. Having an abundant supply of water helps protect against drought or other emergencies.

Combined, the water treatment facilities for these sources can treat over 56-million gallons of water a day; however, current production averages about 19-million gallons per day.

8

Roanoke Systems

9

Carvins Cove

Reservoir &

Treatment Facility

Carvins Cove Reservoir is situated within Carvins Cove Natural Reserve, a 12,672-acre watershed near Hollins University in Botetourt County. The land in the reserve above the 1,200-foot contour is owned and managed by the City of Roanoke. The land below this elevation, and the reservoir, are owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority. In addition to receiving water from the watershed, the reservoir is fed from two underground tunnels that carry overflow from Tinker and Catawba Creeks. This surface water source covers 630 acres and stores 6.42-billion gallons of water at full pond.

How is it treated? Carvins Cove Water Treatment Facility has the capacity to treat 24-million gallons of water from the reservoir every day. Annual production averaged 6.9-million gallons per day. The water is first oxygenated and treated with sodium permanganate to oxidize dissolved organic matter, iron and manganese. Water is aerated to remove unwanted dissolved gases and to oxidize dissolved metals, which reduces any unpleasant tastes and odors. Flash mixing of chemicals is the next step, where ferric sulfate is added to coagulate suspended particles. Water then flows into settling basins where the particles clump together, become heavy and settle to the bottom of the basins. Next, the water is filtered through sand and anthracite and disinfected with chlorine. Fluoride is added to promote strong teeth. Sodium hydroxide is added to adjust the pH and reduce corrosivity, and orthophosphate is added to control corrosion in pipes.

Where does it serve? A large part of the northeastern and northwestern parts of the city, and the majority of the southeastern part of the city, to Reserve Avenue, are served by Carvins Cove. Portions of northern and northeastern Roanoke County are also served by the Carvins Cove water source. Water from Carvins Cove also serves the Botetourt area around Exit 150 to Tinkerview and Greenfield.

Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the Maxium Contaminant Levels (MCLs). The Virginia Department of Health advised that the MCL for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) was exceeded because the running annual average exceeded the MCL at one monitoring location in the Etzler Road area of Botetourt. Disinfectants used in the treatment of drinking water react with naturally occurring organic matter present in the water to form trihalomethanes. These results are averaged with the previous three quarters of results to determine the system’s running annual average at each sampling location. Because the running annual average exceeded the 80 ppb MCL at the sampling location, the Authority was deemed out of compliance with TTHM standards. Operation changes included adding a mechnical mixing system and increased monitoring. Water treated at the Carvins Cove Treatment Facility meets all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements.

Carvins Cove Natural Reserve

www.westernvawater.org/carvinscove

Carvins Cove Natural Reserve, the second largest municipal park in the United States, offers outdoor recreation opportunities, including boating, fishing, hiking, paddleboarding and nature viewing. You can bring your own boat or rent kayaks and jon boats at the reservoir.

Visitors to the Natural Reserve are charged $7 per vehicle for daily use or annual passes are available for $50. Payment drop boxes are located at the Bennett Springs, Hollins Trailhead and Timberview parking lots, or passes can be purchased from the Security Office on Reservoir Road. For more information, call the Natural Reserve at 540.362.1757.

10

Substance

Units

Ideal Goals

Highest Level Allowed

Violation

Carvins Cove Data

(EPA’s MCLG)

(EPA’s MCL)

(range) average

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

ppm

2

2

no

0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

(0.39 - 0.76) 0.61

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

(1.43 - 2.0) 1.73

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

NTU

TT

Percent of samples that met treatment requirement of

no

maximum 0.23/ 100%

0.3 NTU

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

no

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

1.7

Radium 228

pCi/L

0

5

no

< 0.35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

no

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

90th percentile = 1.51 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

90th percentile = 0.30 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorate

ppm

 

0.8

no

(0.01 - 0.02) 0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

ppm

 

4

no

(1.2 - 1.4) 1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorite

ppm

 

0.8

no

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(ND - 61) site range

(7 - 38) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

yes

(15 - 80) site range

(24 - 81) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive,

no

0

and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(20 - 36) 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

n/a

96.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(26 - 42) 33

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

(ND - 0.03) 0.023

Manganese

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

(0.008 - 0.036) 0.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(0.24 - 0.29) 0.27

pH

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.4 - 7.7) 7.6

Sodium

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

6.0

Zinc

ppm

 

5

n/a

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roanoke Systems

11

Crystal Spring

Treatment Facility

Crystal Spring flows at the base of Mill Mountain in the southern part of the city. Annual production from this groundwater source was 4.8-million gallons of water a day.

How is it treated ? The water is filtered in the Crystal Spring Ultrafiltration Treatment Facility which filters out all particles larger than 0.01 micron. One micron is one thousandth of a millimeter. Filtered water is treated with chlorine and fluoride and pumped to water customers from the Crystal Spring Pumping Station.

Where does it serve? Crystal Spring serves portions of southwest Roanoke County and the southwestern part of the city. With the capacity to filter five-million gallons of water a day, Crystal Spring Treatment Facility is the largest ultrafiltration plant in western Virginia.

Tests for volatile organics (VOCs), pesticides and synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) have been conducted, and all met current state and federal standards for drinking water.

Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs.

Water treated at the Crystal Spring Treatment Facility meets all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements.

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

 

Crystal Spring Data

Substance

Units

Allowed

Violation

(EPA’s MCLG)

(range) average

 

 

(EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

ppm

2

2

no

0.04

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chromium

ppm

0.1

0.1

no

0.0011

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

(0.6 - 0.74) 0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.01 - 0.01) 0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

no

1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

pCi/L

0

5

no

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

no

1.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

90th percentile = 1.51 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

90th percentile = 0.30 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorate

ppm

 

0.8

no

N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

ppm

 

4

no

(1.1 -1.1) 1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorite

ppm

 

0.8

no

N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(ND - 61) site range

(7 - 38) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(15 - 80) site range

(24 - 81) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

118

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

n/a

250

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(133 - 137) 137

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

ND

Manganese

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

ND

pH

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.6 - 7.8) 7.7

Sodium

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

3.7

Zinc

ppm

 

5

n/a

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Distribution System

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one

no

0

is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

12

Falling Creek &

Beaverdam Creek

Reservoirs

Roanoke Systems

Falling Creek Reservoir is a surface water source located in Bedford County east of Vinton. It covers 21 acres and stores 85-million gallons of water at full pond. It is fed by Beaverdam Creek Reservoir, which covers 69 acres and stores 435-million gallons of water at full pond.

How is it treated? The treatment process of this water source is similar to that of Spring Hollow Treatment Facility. The treatment capacity is 1.5-million gallons a day. Sodium hydroxide is added for pH adjustment and zinc ortho-phosphate is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

Where does it serve? Falling Creek Water Treatment Facility serves King Street northeast to Route 460, along Route 24 to 13th Street and east on Route 24 to Stewartsville. Falling Creek was not utilized during 2020. Residents in the Falling Creek service area received water from the Carvins Cove system.

Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs.

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

 

Falling Creek Data

Substance

Units

(EPA’s

Allowed

Violation

(range) average

 

 

MCLG)

(EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

ppm

2

2

no

0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chromium

ppm

0.1

0.1

no

0.0002

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thallium

ppm

0.0005

0.002

no

0.00005

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.03 - 0.24) 0.08

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

no

- 0.83

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

0.11

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

pCi/L

0

5

no

-0.58

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

no

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

90th percentile = 1.51 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

90th percentile = 0.30 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorate

ppm

 

0.8

no

N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

ppm

 

4

no

(0.9 - 1.9) 1.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorite

ppm

 

0.8

no

N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(ND - 61) site range

(7 - 38) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(15 - 80) site range

(24 - 81) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(12 - 20) 18

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

n/a

67.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(16 - 18) 17

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

(ND - 0.04) 0.02

Manganese

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(0.1 - 0.29) 0.19

pH

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.1 - 8.6) 7.9

Sodium

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

8.92

Zinc

ppm

 

5

n/a

0.13

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Distribution System

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one

no

0

is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

13

Muse Spring

Treatment Facility

The Muse Spring Water Treatment Facility (WTF), located at the site of Muse Spring on Riverland Road, treats raw water from Muse Spring and Garden City Well No. 3. This facility has the capacity to treat 2-million gallons per day.

How is it treated? The water is filtered in the Muse Spring Ultrafiltration Treatment Facility which filters out all particles larger than 0.01 micron. One micron is one thousandth of a millimeter. Filtered water is treated with chlorine, fluoride and orthophosphate and pumped to water customers from the Muse Spring Pumping Station.

Where does it serve? Muse Spring ties directly into the existing Authority distribution system and will help serve the eastern portion of the Carvins Cove service area southeast of downtown.

Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs.

Water treated at the Muse Spring Treatment Facility meets all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements.

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

 

Muse Spring WTf Data

Substance

Units

Allowed

Violation

(EPA’s MCLG)

(range) average

 

 

(EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

ppm

2

2

no

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

(0.5 - 0.7) 0.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite

ppm

10

10

no

 

(as N)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

NA

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.01 - 0.25) 0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

no

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

no

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 10 samples exceeded AL

90th percentile = 1.5 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 10 samples exceeded AL

90th percentile = 0.223 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorate

ppm

 

0.8

no

NA

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

ppm

 

4

no

(1.0 - 1.2) 1.12

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorite

ppm

 

0.8

no

NA

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(ND - 61) site range

(7 - 38) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(15 - 80) site range

(24 - 81) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(120 - 137) 130

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

 

Manganese

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(0.13 - 0.26) 0.21

pH

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.3 - 7.6) 7.5

Sodium

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

 

Zinc

ppm

 

5

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Distribution System

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one

no

0

is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

14

Spring Hollow

Reservoir &

Treatment Facility

The water source for this system comes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Substance

 

Units

Ideal Goals

Highest Level Allowed

Violation

 

Spring Hollow Data

from the Roanoke River and is pumped into

 

 

 

(EPA’s MCLG)

(EPA’s MCL)

 

(range) average

the Spring Hollow Reservoir, a 3.2-billion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

gallon side-stream storage reservoir.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

 

ppm

2

2

no

0.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How is it treated? Water is first oxygenated

 

 

Fluoride

 

ppm

4

4

no

(0.7 - 0.77) 0.73

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate &

 

ppm

10

10

no

0.4

in the reservoir, then the water is withdrawn

 

 

 

 

 

Nitrite (as N)

 

from the reservoir and treated with sodium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Organic

 

ppm

TT

N/A

no

(1.08 - 1.37) 1.23

hypochlorite

and

sodium

permangante

 

 

 

 

 

Carbon

 

to oxidize dissolved

organic

matter,

 

iron

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percent of samples

 

 

 

and manganese.

Treatment at the Spring

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

 

NTU

TT

that met treatment

no

 

maxium 0.24/ 100%

Hollow Treatment Facility includes upflow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

requirement of 0.3 NTU

 

 

 

clarification, filtration, chlorine disinfection

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

and fluoridation. Orthophosphate is added

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

 

pCi/L

0

15

no

0.24

to control corrosion in pipes. The Spring

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

 

pCi/L

0

50

no

2.4

Hollow Water Treatment Facility currently

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

 

 

 

 

 

0.36

has the capacity to treat 18-million gallons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

0.6

of water a day and can be expanded to

 

 

 

36-million gallons a day. Treated water is

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

stored in a two-million gallon storage tank

 

 

Lead

 

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

 

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

then pumped through the north and south

 

 

 

 

90th percentile = 1.51 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

transmission lines to the distribution system.

 

 

Copper

 

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

 

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

Annual production averaged 5.1-million

 

 

 

 

90th percentile = 0.30 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

gallons a day. During an emergency, standby

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

wells may be used to supplement the source

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorate

 

ppm

 

0.8

no

 

(ND - 0.21) 0.07

water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

 

ppm

 

4

no

(1.18 - 1.3) 1.24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where does it serve? Spring Hollow supplies

 

 

Chlorite

 

ppm

 

0.8

no

 

ND

water to various neighborhoods in Roanoke

 

 

HAA5s

 

ppb

0

60

no

 

(ND - 61) site range

County and Franklin County through the

 

 

 

 

(7 - 38) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

southern transmission lines. The northern

 

 

TTHMs

 

ppb

0

80

no

 

(15 - 80) site range

transmission lines run along I-81 and serve

 

 

 

 

(24 - 81) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the City of Roanoke and Roanoke County.

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

Many other primary and secondary

 

 

Alkalinity

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(124 - 139) 132

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

 

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

n/a

294

contaminants have been analyzed but were

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(150 - 161) 156

either below

the

instrument’s detection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

 

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

 

ND

limits or below the MCLs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manganese

 

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Water treated at the Spring Hollow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(0.23 - 0.34) 0.25

Treatment

Facility

meets

all

state

 

 

 

as P

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

and federal monitoring and reporting

 

 

 

pH

 

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.6 - 7.8) 7.6

requirements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sodium

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zinc

 

ppm

 

5

n/a

 

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

Units

 

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

 

Distribution System

 

Total Coliforms

 

P/A

 

 

0

 

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

 

 

P/A

 

 

0

 

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one

no

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Roanoke Systems

Community

Well Systems

The Authority maintains well systems that serve the community of Martin Creek and over 20 other wells in the Roanoke area. While many of these wells are inactive, they can offer an additional supply of water if needed. Wells* represent those in service in 2020 including Garden City #2, LaBellevue 7, Muse Spring Well, North Lakes 6, and Starkey 3. Data presented as (range) average.

The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to meet all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2020.

Martin Creek System

Seven wells supply this groundwater source, which is disinfected with chlorine prior to distribution. Water is distributed throughout the community by two storage tanks and distribution piping consisting of 8-inch, 6-inch and 4-inch pipe. The total source/pump capacity is equal to 76,000 gallons per day. Current usage is approximately 22,100 gallons per day. This system supplies water to the Forest Edge and Carriage Hills areas.

According to results of the chemical analyses for Metals based on a sample collected in 2019, the sodium in the treated water in wells 1, 2 and 10 had sodium ranging from 24.1 - 7 ppm. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 mg/L for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet.

Substance

Units

Ideal Goals -

Highest Level

Martin Creek

Wells*

EPA’s MCLG

Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antimony

ppm

0.006

0.006

(ND - 0.00013)

(ND - 0.0001)

0.00002

0.00001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arsenic

ppm

0

0.01

(ND - 0.00011)

(ND - 0.0002)

0.00002

0.00006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

ppm

2

2

(0.002 - 0.02) 0.009

(0.036 - 0.14)

 

0.08

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beryllium

ppm

0.004

0.004

(ND - 0.00006)

(ND 0.0003)

0.00002

0.00006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cadmium

ppm

0.005

0.005

(ND - 0.00005)

(ND - 0.0001)

0.00002

0.00001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chromium

ppm

0.1

0.1

(0.00023 - 0.00084)

(ND - 0.0018)

0.00053

0.00096

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

(0.2 - 1.6) 0.7

(0.1 - 0.3) 0.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selenium

ppm

0.05

0.05

ND

(ND - 0.00135)

0.00034

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thallium

ppm

0.0005

0.002

(ND - 0.00009)

(ND - 0.00011)

0.00005

0.00002)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

(ND - 0.47) 0.25

(0.5 - 0.9) 0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

(0.08 - 0.21) 0.12

(ND - 0.2) 0.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

(0.7 - 3.2) 2.1

(1.2 - 2.10) 1.64

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

(-1.0 - 7.3) 2.8

(2.2 - 4.5) 2.94

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

pCi/L

0

5

(-0.1 - 1.9) 0.7

(ND - 1.9) 0.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

(ND - 2.5) 1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 of 5 samples

0 of 52 samples

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

exceeded AL

exceeded AL

90th percentile

90th percentile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

= 3.2 ppb

= 1.51 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 of 5 samples

0 of 52 samples

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

exceeded AL

exceeded AL

90th percentile

90th percentile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

= 0.212 ppm

= 0.3 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

ppm

 

4

(0.95 - 1.76) 1.41

(0.9 - 1.5) 1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5

ppb

0

60

5.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHM

ppb

0

80

21.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in

0

0

>5% of monthly samples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A routine and a repeat sample

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

are total coliform positive, and

0

0

one is also fecal coliform or E.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

 

(110 - 210) 182

(112-170) 139

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

(278 - 859) 514

(270-380) 336

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

 

(124 - 380) 232

(136-190) 170

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

ppm

 

0.3

(ND - 0.058) 0.02

(ND - 0.068) 0.02

Manganese

ppm

 

0.05

(0.0003 - 0.042)

(ND-0.002) 0.0004

 

0.015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

unregulated

 

ND

ND

pH

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

(6.9 - 7.5) 7.2

(7.5-7.9) 7.7

Sodium

ppm

unregulated

 

(11.7 - 27) 19.8

(2.8 - 8.0) 5.2

Zinc

ppm

 

5

(0.02 - 0.46) 0.15

(0.003 - 0.008)

 

0.006

 

 

 

 

 

16

City of Salem

Source

The Western Virginia Water Authority contracts with the City of Salem to purchase water to supply Robin Hood Park and other areas around West Main Street and Riverside Drive in Roanoke County. The City of Salem’s water source is the Roanoke River and three ground water wells.

If you have any questions about this data, please contact the City of Salem Water Department at 375-3029. If you want to learn more about this source, please attend any of the regularly scheduled Salem City Council meetings. They are held on the second and fourth Monday of each month in council chambers.

The City of Salem Water Department routinely monitors for contaminants in the drinking water mandated by Federal and State laws. The following table shows the results of monitoring for the period of January 1st to December 31st, 2020 or the most recent monitoring period. The City of Salem Water Department had no violations during this time period.

The Virginia Department of Health has completed a source water assessment for Salem’s waterworks system. This assessment provides information on possible sources of contamination to our source water. As determined by the source water assessment, the possibility of contamination to our water source (Roanoke River) is high. This is due to the fact that surface water is exposed to an inconsistent array of contaminants at varying concentrations due to changing hydrologic, hydraulic and atmospheric conditions with land use activities of concern in the assessment area. To view a copy of this water assessment, please contact the City of Salem Water Department office at 540-375-3029.

 

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

 

City of Salem Data

Substance

 

Units

Allowed

Violation

 

(EPA’s MCLG)

(range) average

 

 

 

(EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

 

ppm

2

2

no

0.044

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

 

ppm

4

4

no

(0.27 - 0.79)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate &

 

ppm

10

10

no

0.43

Nitrite (as N)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Organic

 

ppm

TT

N/A

no

1.0

Carbon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

 

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.03 - 0.12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

 

pCi/L

0

15

no

± 0.7 - 0.51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

 

pCi/L

0

50

no

± 3.0 - 0.69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

± 0.6 - 0.49

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

 

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 32 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 2.1 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

 

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 32 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 0.07 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

 

ppm

 

4

no

(1.03 - 2.0)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorite

 

ppm

 

0.8

no

N/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

 

ppb

0

60

no

(12.0 - 45.8) LRAA 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

 

ppb

0

80

no

(12.9 -72.4) LRAA 45

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(122 - 182)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(121 - 240)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pH

 

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.35 - 7.96)

Sodium

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

4.87

Zinc

 

ppm

 

5

n/a

< 0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roanoke Systems

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Level Detected in Salem

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

 

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

 

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is

no

0

 

also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source Water Testing - this data does not apply to treated water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cryptosporidium

Oocysts per 1L

0

 

99% removal by filtration plus addition as required

no

(0.098 - 0.103)

 

under the LT2ESWTR

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giardia

Cysts per 1L

0

 

99% removal or inactivation

no

1.0 - 2.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17

Botetourt County

Water Systems

On July 1, 2015, Botetourt County consolidated its utility system with the Western Virginia Water Authority. This joinder allowed for the expansion of the Carvins Cove service area to include customers in the former Greenfield and Tinkerview Garden well service areas. The water quality of Carvins Cove, particularly in terms of the mineral content, is more beneficial to meeting the needs of industries and residents. Other customers in the Botetourt service area receive water from community wells.

18

 

 

Greenfield and Tinkerview

 

Customers in Greenfield and along the southern end of

 

 

Garden Areas

 

 

US Route 220 to the I-81 exit 150 interchange receive

 

 

 

 

water from the treatment plant that treats surface water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

from Carvins Cove Reservoir.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Substance

Units

Ideal Goals

 

Highest Level Allowed

Violation

Carvins Cove Data

 

 

(EPA’s MCLG)

 

 

(EPA’s MCL)

(range) average

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

ppm

2

 

 

2

 

no

0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

ppm

4

 

 

4

 

no

(0.39 - 0.76) 0.61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

 

 

10

no

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

 

 

N/A

no

(1.43 - 2.0) 1.73

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

NTU

TT

 

Percent of samples that met treatment requirement of

no

maximum 0.23/ 100%

 

 

 

 

0.3 NTU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

 

 

15

no

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

 

 

50

no

1.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

pCi/L

0

 

 

5

 

no

< 0.35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

 

 

5

 

no

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

 

 

AL = 15

no

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

 

 

 

 

90th percentile = 1.51 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

 

 

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 52 samples exceeded AL

 

 

 

 

90th percentile = 0.30 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorate

ppm

 

 

 

0.8

no

(0.01 - 0.02) 0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

ppm

 

 

 

4

 

no

(1.2 - 1.4) 1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorite

ppm

 

 

 

0.8

no

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

ppb

0

 

 

60

no

(ND - 61) site range

 

 

 

 

(7-38) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

ppb

0

 

 

80

yes

(15 - 80) site range

 

 

 

 

(24 - 81) LRAA range

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

 

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.coli

P/A

0

 

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive,

no

0

 

 

 

and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

 

 

 

 

n/a

(20 - 36) 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

 

 

 

n/a

96.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

 

 

 

 

n/a

(26 - 42) 33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

ppm

 

 

 

0.3

n/a

(ND - 0.03) 0.023

 

 

Manganese

ppm

 

 

 

0.05

n/a

(0.008 - 0.036) 0.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

unregulated

 

 

 

 

n/a

(0.24 - 0.29) 0.27

 

 

pH

pH units

 

 

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.4 - 7.7) 7.6

 

 

Sodium

ppm

unregulated

 

 

 

 

n/a

6.0

 

 

Zinc

ppm

 

 

 

5

 

n/a

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Botetourt County Systems

19

Botetourt Well

Systems

The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that Botetourt well systems meet all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2020.

Dal-Nita Hills

Water from Dal-Nita Hills well comes from a groundwater well and is distributed throughout the community by a storage tank and distribution piping. Chlorination treatment is provided. According to results of the chemical analyses for metals, the sodium in the treated water is 66.7 ppm. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 ppm for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet. A source water assessment for the Dal-Nita Hills well has been completed by the Virginia Department of Health. The assessment determined that the well may be susceptible to contamination because it is located in an area that promotes migration of contaminants from land use activities of concern. Public education materials on lead and copper are distributed to customers in this system each year.

Eagle Rock

Your drinking water is groundwater obtained from two wells. Disinfection treatment (by chlorination) is provided for both wells prior to discharge to the storage tank. Water is distributed from the storage tank by gravity.

Five samples were tested for Lead in 2019. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 7.91 ppb. Five samples were tested for Copper. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 0.175 ppm.

Glen Wilton

Your drinking water is groundwater and can be obtained from three wells. All wells are treated for iron and manganese removal by chemical precipitation and filtration and chlorine for disinfection. Wells 1 and 2 have higher levels of iron and manganese and these wells are normally not used. Well 3 is the primary source. Water is pumped from the treatment building to the storage tank and distribution piping.

Five samples were tested for Lead in 2019. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 2.92 ppb. Five samples were tested for Copper. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 0.096 ppm. According to results of the chemical analyses for Metals, the sodium in the treated water is 23.1 ppm. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 ppm for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet.

Griffith Park

Your drinking water is groundwater obtained from a drilled well. Water is pumped from the well to a metal storage tank behind the well house. A booster pump in the well house draws water from the tank and sends it to a pressure tank (also in the well house) and then throughout the community. Treatment is provided for iron and manganese. A small pump in the well house feeds a blend of orthophosphate and polyphosphate to sequester iron and manganese. Chlorine feed equipment was installed to continuously disinfect the water.

Manganese levels (0.356 - 0.368 ppm) and Iron levels (1.9 -2.23 ppm)are above the EPA’s recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels or (SMCLs) of 0.05 ppm for Manganese and 0.3 ppm for Iron. There are currently no known adverse health effects associated with the presence of manganese at this level; however, it can result in aesthetic problems such as staining or discoloration of clothes and fixtures, as well as the impairment of taste of beverages made with the water.

Five samples were tested for Lead in 2019. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 2.5 ppb. Five samples were tested for Copper. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 0.629 ppm.

Keswick Farms

Your drinking water is groundwater obtained from a drilled well. Water is distributed throughout the community by a storage tank and distribution piping. Chlorination treatment is provided. Public education materials on lead and copper are distributed to customers in this system each year.

Walnut Manor

Your drinking water is groundwater obtained from a drilled well. Water is distributed throughout the community by a storage tank and distribution piping. Chlorination treatment is provided. Public education materials on lead and copper are distributed to customers in this system each year.

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

Dal-Nita Hills

Eagle Rock

Glen Wilton

Griffith Park

Keswick Farm

Walnut

 

Substance

Units

(EPA’s

Allowed

Manor

 

Wells

Wells

Wells

Wells

Wells

 

 

 

MCLG)

(EPA’s MCL)

Wells

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antimony

ppm

0.006

0.006

ND

0.00005

ND

ND

0.00008

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arsenic

ppm

0

0.01

ND

0.00017

0.00011

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

ppm

2

2

0.042

0.183

0.153

0.0785

0.135

0.12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beryllium

ppm

0.004

0.004

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cadmium

ppm

0.005

0.005

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chromium

ppm

0.1

0.1

ND

0.00025

0.00057

ND

0.0013

0.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

0.087

0.148

0.12

0.134

0.44

2.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selenium

ppm

0.05

0.05

ND

0.00102

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thallium

ppm

0.0005

0.002

ND

0.00003

0.00001

ND

0.00002

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

3.1

ND

ND

ND

2.2

0.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

0.127

0.116

0.109

(2.39 - 10.8)

0.149

0.099

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,2-dichlorobenzene

ppb

 

5

ND

ND

ND

0.053

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethylbenzene

ppb

 

700

ND

ND

ND

ND

(ND - 2.7) 1.63

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Styrene

ppb

 

100

ND

ND

ND

ND

(ND - 0.5) 1.67

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Xylene

ppb

 

10,000

ND

ND

ND

ND

(ND - 21.9)

ND

 

 

13.18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

1.8

1.1

0.7

0.6

< 0.27

0.36

 

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

5.1

2.1

< 0.61

1.7

1.2

5.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

 

 

 

1.9

0.62

< 0.4

1.3

< 0.6

1.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

3.7

1.72

0.7

1.9

< 0.6

1.76

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

<1.0

 

 

 

<1.0

1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See page 20

 

 

 

 

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

0.002

 

 

0.0051

0.021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

ppm

 

4

(1.0 - 1.2) 1.1

(0.95-1.3) 1.1

(0.9 - 1.3) 1.2

(0.8 - 1.0) 0.9

(0.9 - 1.15) 1.1

(0.9 - 1.2)

 

 

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5

ppb

0

60

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHM

ppb

0

80

7.0

2.1

1.6

6.7

4.2

8.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presence of coliform

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

bacteria in >5% of

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

 

 

monthly samples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A routine and a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

repeat sample

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

are total coliform

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

positive, and one is

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

also fecal coliform or

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

 

459

180

140

144

336

320

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

1120

366

334

488

772

703

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

 

464

191

126

228

380

400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

ppm

 

0.3

ND

0.035

(ND - 0.065)

(0.9 - 1.1) 1.0

ND

ND

 

 

0.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manganese

ppm

 

0.05

ND

0.003

0.002

(0.356 - 0.368)

0.0003

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

unregulated

 

ND

ND

ND

(1.3 - 1.6) 1.4

0.14

ND

 

pH

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

7.01

7.57

7.7

6.75

7.13

7.39

 

Sodium

ppm

unregulated

 

66.7

8.8

23.1

17.7

11.8

5.7

 

Zinc

ppm

 

5

0.008

0.02

0.002

0.008

0.02

0.04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Botetourt County Systems

Water Main

Dillards Hill Water System

StarOverLake

Streets

Frederick Acres

Striper's Landing

Alton Park Water System

Hillcrest Water System

The Retreat Water System

Burnt Chimney Rd Water System

Ridgecrest Water System

Timberlake Crossing Water System

Cherokee Hills Water System

Westlake Area Water System

Walnut Run Water System

Compass Cove Water System

Spring Hollow

Water's Edge Water System

 

 

Smith Mountain Lake

ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electric Rd

Va

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ja

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CITY OF

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ROANOKE

 

Rd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d

ROANOKE

 

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

R

COUNTY

 

R

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

rdy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

in

 

 

n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ta

 

y

 

 

 

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BEDFORD

 

 

 

Rd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n

 

 

 

 

 

nk

 

 

 

 

 

 

J

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ou

 

 

 

k

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M

 

 

 

 

 

P

 

 

 

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

ubFrederick

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

t

 

 

 

 

 

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on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

en

 

 

 

 

g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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M

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

id

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B

 

 

 

R

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ly

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hend

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Store

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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rick

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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TOWN OF

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

loyd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Hw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

in

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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T

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

k

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ridge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Alton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smith

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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cr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Park

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ug

 

 

 

 

Mountain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

gs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Rd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

irt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lake

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FLOYD

 

 

 

 

t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COUNTY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOWN OF

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

li

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

k

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ROCKY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

an

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOUNT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hillcrest

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

0.5

1 Miles

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Pe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old Franklin Tpke

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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u

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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nt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

h

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

St

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

V

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRANKLIN

 

 

 

 

 

i

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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COUNTY

 

 

 

 

 

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l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

li

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

k

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

wy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cherokee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

w

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

o

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

gilH

Go

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philpott

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

V

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reservoir

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PATRICK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

s

 

COUNTY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

V

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

0.25

 

0.5 Miles

´

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

an

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rd

 

 

 

 

Fair

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

inia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ca

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F

 

 

L

 

s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PITTSYLVANIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

aketone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d

 

 

Pairyst

 

D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Av

 

 

 

 

or

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

R

 

 

COUNTY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

tham

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

on

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

s

 

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ark

 

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ig

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

h

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

R

 

 

 

 

HENRY COUNTY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

y

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H a r d y

Rd

 

Drinking Water Systems

0 0.20.4 Miles

´

Walnut

in

Franklin County

 

 

a Rd

 

Run

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mon

tand well water

 

The Western Virginia Water Authority utilizes surface water

 

sources to provide customers in the Franklin County service area with drinking

 

water and fire protection. Information on each of those sources can be found on

 

the following pages. For information on the water supply serving the U.S. Route

 

220 area, please see page 15 (Spring Hollow Water Supply) of this publication.

Timberlake Crossing

StarOverLake

Hendricks

Store

Rd

SML Water

Treatment Facility

Q3

 

 

 

d

 

 

r

 

fo d

Rad

R

 

 

ch

 

r

 

u

 

h

 

 

C

 

 

 

Westlake Area

Water System

 

 

 

 

 

y

 

 

 

 

onHw

 

 

 

ingt

 

 

 

sh

 

 

 

rTWa

 

 

 

ke

 

 

 

 

Boo

 

 

 

 

 

ScruggsRd

Burnt Chimney Rd Water System

Striper's

Landing

Compass

Cove

The Retreat Water System

Dillards Hill Water System

Water's

Edge

23

Franklin County Systems

Smith Mountain Lake Water

Treatment Facility -

Westlake Area Water System

The Western Virginia Water Authority (WVWA) has a successful working relationship with the Bedford Regional Water Authority (BRWA) to provide treated drinking water from the Smith Mountain Lake Water Treatment Plant to customers in the Westlake Area Water System area. This facility, which opened in May 2017, was designed to meet both utilities’ joint water needs through the year 2060 as recommended by the Regional Long Range Water Supply Plan.

How is it treated? Water from Smith Mountain Lake is screened through 500 micron woven mesh stainless steel strainers to remove fine silt and then pumped to the treatment facility. The membrane plant has 216 modules that each have 10,000 membrane filter strands to provide the unique water treatment capability. The membranes can filter out particles larger than 0.02 microns. Ferric sulfate and permanganate is added as a coagulation. After filtration, the water is treated with sodium hypochlorite, a required disinfectant to eliminate bacteria. The finished water in the distribution system is re-chlorinated at The Boardwalk, The Waterfront Section 2-9 subdivisions and at Burnt Chimney for continuous chlorination.

Where does it serve? Water from this treatment plant serves customers in Bedford County and Franklin County. As the water flows through pipes under Hales Ford Bridge, it enters the Westlake Area Water System service area. Customers in the Westlake Commercial District, Boardwalk, Chestnut Creek, Deer Creek, Hales Point, Lakewood Forest, Long Island, Twin Cove, Waterfront, Waverly, Weatherwood and Windmere Point communities, along Scruggs Road and along Route 122 to just past Wirtz Road are served by the Westlake Area Public Water System.

The Western Virginia Water Authority and Bedford Regional Water Authority are pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2020.

A source water assessment for the Westlake Area systems has been conducted by the Virginia Department of Health. Well(s) serving this community were determined to be of high susceptibility to contamination using the criteria developed by the state in its approved Source Water Assessment Program. The assessment report consists of maps showing the source water assessment area, an inventory of known land use activities of concern and documentation of any known contamination within the last five years. The assessment determined that this source might be susceptible to contamination because they are located in areas that promote migration of contaminants from land use activities of concern. More specific information about these reports may be obtained by contacting the Authority’s Water Quality Division at 540.853.5700.

Data collected during calendar year 2020 or most recent testing period. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067244

Smith Mountain Lake

Water Treatment Facility

working together to provide the region’s drinking water

24

Substance

 

Units

Ideal Goals

Highest Level Allowed

Violation

Data Collected at the SML

Data Collected in the Westlake

 

(EPA’s MCLG)

(EPA’s MCL)

Water Treatment Facility

Area Water System

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

 

ppm

2

2

no

0.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

 

ppm

4

4

no

(0.6 - 0.96) 0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite

 

ppm

10

10

no

0.3

 

(as N)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

 

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.05 - 0.18) 0.05

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

 

pCi/L

0

15

no

0.28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

 

pCi/L

0

50

no

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

0.58

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

 

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

 

0 of 15 samples exceeded AL

 

 

90th percentile = 3.5 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

 

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

 

0 of 15 samples exceeded AL

 

 

90th percentile = 0.372 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

 

ppm

 

4

no

(0.09 - 1.71) 1.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

 

ppb

0

60

no

 

LRAA ( 33 - 42)

 

 

Site Range (9.3 - 67)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

 

ppb

0

80

no

 

LRAA (52 - 57)

 

 

Site Range (37 - 69.7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Coliforms

 

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria

no

0

0

 

in >5% of monthly samples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A routine and a repeat

 

 

 

E. coli

 

P/A

0

sample are total coliform

no

0

0

 

positive, and one is also fecal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(65- 116) 87

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

 

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

n/a

215

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(58 - 109 )87

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

 

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

(0 - 0.4) 0.01

 

Manganese

 

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

(0 - 0.005) 0.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate as P

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

<0.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pH

 

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.2 - 8.1) 7.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sodium

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

8.64

 

Zinc

 

ppm

 

5

n/a

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

Franklin County Systems

Alton Park Water System

The Alton Park Water System is served by two groundwater wells and related storage facility. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2020.

The Western Virginia Water Authority has worked with the Virginia Department of Health to determine our water sources susceptibility to contaminants. The assessment is a requirement of the Virginia Department of Health’s (VDH) Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) in accordance with the 1996 Amendments of the Safe Drinking Water Act. More specific information about these reports may be obtained by contacting the Western Virginia Water Authority’s Water Quality Division at 540.853.5700.

Data collected during calendar year 2020 or most recent testing period.

Data presented as (range) average.

PWSID# 5067020

 

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

 

Alton Park System Data

Substance

Units

 

(EPA’s

Allowed

Violation

 

(range) average

 

 

 

MCLG)

(EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arsenic

ppm

 

0

0.01

no

0.00013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

ppm

 

2

2

no

0.011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cadmium

ppm

 

0.005

0.005

no

0.00014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chromium

ppm

 

0.1

0.1

no

0.00197

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethylbenzene

ppb

 

 

700

no

5.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

ppm

 

4

4

no

0.096

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thalium

ppm

 

0.0005

0.002

no

0.00002

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate & Nitrite

ppm

 

10

10

no

0.12

(as N)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

NTU

 

TT

0.3

no

0.13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Xylene

ppb

 

 

10,000

no

13.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

 

0

15

no

3.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

pCi/L

 

0

50

no

4.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 226

pCi/L

 

0

5

no

0.23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

pCi/L

 

0

5

no

0.36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

pCi/L

 

0

5

no

0.59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

ppb

 

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 1.4 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

ppm

 

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 0.134 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

ppm

 

 

4

no

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

ppb

 

0

60

no

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

ppb

 

0

80

no

n/a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

ppm

 

unregulated

 

n/a

96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

 

unregulated

 

n/a

192

Hardness (Total)

ppm

 

unregulated

 

n/a

90

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

ppm

 

 

0.3

n/a

ND

Manganese

ppm

 

 

0.05

n/a

0.0006

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

 

unregulated

 

n/a

ND

pH

pH units

 

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

7.28

Sodium

ppm

 

unregulated

 

n/a

2

Zinc

ppm

 

 

5

n/a

0.525

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Level Detected

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one

no

0

is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

26

Burnt Chimney Water System

In 2018, the Authority combined four existing waterworks (Boxwood Green, Fox Chase, Royal Estates and Dam Shores) to form the Burnt Chimney Water System to serve these communities.

The system consists of five drilled groundwater wells and related storage facilities.

Greensand filters are used to remove iron and manganese from the drinking water. Soda ash is used for pH adjustment and chlorine is used for disinfection of the water. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2020.

The Western Virginia Water Authority has worked with the Virginia Department of Health to determine our water sources susceptibility to contaminants. The assessment is a requirement of the Virginia Department of Health’s (VDH) Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) in accordance with the 1996 Amendments of the Safe Drinking Water Act. More specific information about these reports may be obtained by contacting the Western Virginia Water Authority’s Water Quality Division at 540.853.5700.

Data collected during calendar year 2020 or most recent testing period.

Data presented as (range) average.

PWSID# 5067042

 

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

 

Burnt Chimney System Data

Substance

 

Units

Allowed

Violation

 

(EPA’s MCLG)

(range) average

 

 

 

(EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

 

ppm

2

2

no

0.019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chromium

 

ppm

0.1

0.1

no

0.0011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

 

ppm

4

4

no

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate &

 

ppm

10

10

no

0.4

Nitrite (as N)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Organic

 

ppm

TT

N/A

no

n/a

Carbon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

 

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.42 - 19.8) 2.18

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

 

pCi/L

0

15

no

0.53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

 

pCi/L

0

50

no

2.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 226

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

0.45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

0.74

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

1.19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper

 

 

 

 

 

 

Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

 

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 11 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 5.0 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

 

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 11 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 0.74 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

 

ppm

 

4

no

(0.89 - 1.2) 1.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

 

ppb

0

60

no

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

 

ppb

0

80

no

2.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(66 - 94) 83

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

(33 - 62) 41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

 

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

0.021

Manganese

 

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

ND

as P

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pH

 

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.1 - 7.8) 7.6

Sodium

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

18

Zinc

 

ppm

 

5

n/a

0.16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Franklin County

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Level Detected

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is

no

0

also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

Systems

27

Cherokee Hills Water System

The Cherokee Hills community’s waterworks consists of two drilled wells and a storage tank. Treatment included sequestration for iron and manganese and chlorination. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2020.

The level of Iron detected (1.26 ppm) is above the EPA’s recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels or (SMCLs) of 0.3 ppm for Iron. There are currently no known adverse health effects associated with the presence of iron at this level; however, it can result in aesthetic problems such as staining or discoloration of clothes and fixtures, as well as the impairment of taste of beverages made with the water.

The Western Virginia Water Authority has worked with the Virginia Department of Health to determine our water sources susceptibility to contaminants. The assessment is a requirement of the Virginia Department of Health’s (VDH) Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) in accordance with the 1996 Amendments of the Safe Drinking Water Act. More specific information about these reports may be obtained by contacting the Western Virginia Water Authority’s Water Quality Division at 540.853.5700.

Data collected during calendar year 2020 or most recent testing period.

Data presented as (range) average.

PWSID# 5067070

 

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

 

Cherokee Hills System Data

Substance

 

Units

Allowed

Violation

 

(EPA’s MCLG)

(range) average

 

 

 

(EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antimony

 

ppm

0.006

0.006

no

0.0005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

 

ppm

2

2

no

0.0131

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

 

ppm

4

4

no

0.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate &

 

ppm

10

10

no

0.084

Nitrite (as N)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

 

NTU

TT

0.3

no

2.17

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

 

pCi/L

0

15

no

4.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

 

pCi/L

0

50

no

7.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 226

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

1.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

2.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

4.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper

 

 

 

 

 

 

Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

 

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 6 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 3.2 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

 

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 6 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 0.444 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

 

ppm

 

4

no

(ND - 2.18) 0.69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

 

ppb

0

60

no

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

 

ppb

0

80

no

5.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

44.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conductivity

 

μmhos/cm

unregulated

 

n/a

159

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

36.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

 

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

1.26

Manganese

 

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

0.0296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

ND

as P

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pH

 

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

5.75

Sodium

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

13.9

Zinc

 

ppm

 

5

n/a

0.037

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Level Detected

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one

no

0

is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

28

Compass Cove Water System

This water system supplies water to the Compass Cove and Sunset Point Subdivisions. The waterworks consists of three drilled wells and a storage tank. Treatment includes iron and manganese removal.The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2020.

There is no State or Federal MCL for sodium. Monitoring is required to provide information to consumers and health officials that are concerned about sodium intake due to dietary restrictions. The sodium level in the water was measured at 39.4 ppm in 2018. This is more than the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 ppm, established for people on a “strict” sodium intake diet.

The Western Virginia Water Authority has worked with the Virginia Department of Health to determine our water sources susceptibility to contaminants. The assessment is a requirement of the Virginia Department of Health’s (VDH) Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) in accordance with the 1996 Amendments of the Safe Drinking Water Act. More specific information about these reports may be obtained by contacting the Western Virginia Water Authority’s Water Quality Division at 540.853.5700.

Data collected during calendar year 2020 or most recent testing period.

Data presented as (range) average.

PWSID# 5067083

 

 

 

Ideal Goals

Highest Level

 

Compass Cove System Data

Substance

 

Units

Allowed

Violation

 

(EPA’s MCLG)

(range) average

 

 

 

(EPA’s MCL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regulated Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium

 

ppm

2

2

no

0.0463

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fluoride

 

ppm

4

4

no

0.07

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Nitrate &

 

ppm

10

10

no

ND

Nitrite (as N)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turbidity

 

NTU

TT

0.3

no

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactive Contaminants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Alpha

 

pCi/L

0

15

no

1.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross Beta

 

pCi/L

0

50

no

13.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 226

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

1.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radium 228

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

1.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radium

 

pCi/L

0

5

no

3.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead and Copper

 

 

 

 

 

 

Testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead

 

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 6.9 ppb

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

 

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL

 

90th percentile = 0.079 ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

 

ppm

 

4

no

(0.7 - 1.08) 0.92

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAA5s

 

ppb

0

60

no

1.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TTHMs

 

ppb

0

80

no

7.38

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alkalinity

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

159

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardness (Total)

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

89.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron

 

ppm

 

0.3

n/a

ND

Manganese

 

ppm

 

0.05

n/a

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orthophosphate

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

ND

as P

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pH

 

pH units

 

6.5 - 8.5

no

(7.5 - 7.8) 7.6

Sodium

 

ppm

unregulated

 

n/a

39.4

Zinc

 

ppm

 

5

n/a

0.214

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Franklin County

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Level Detected

Systems

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is

no

0

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

2

 

 

 

 

also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29

Dillards Hill Water System

The Dillards Hill Water System consists of nine drilled wells (Contentment Island wells 1, 2,

  • and 4, Highland Lake well 2, Kennedy Shores wells 1 and 2 and Lands End Wells 1 and 2) and related storage facility. Pre-treatment of the water includes the addition of soda ash, potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite solutions, and greensand filters are used to remove iron and man