Layer 1

Is Kankakee Tap Water Safe to Drink?

Yes! Generally Safe to Drink*

LAST UPDATED: 7:48 pm, July 24, 2022

Table of Contents

Can You Drink Tap Water in Kankakee?

Yes, Kankakee's tap water is generally considered safe to drink as Kankakee has no active health based violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) that we are aware of. Other factors such as lead piping in a home, or low levels of pollutants on immunocompromised individuals, should also be considered, however. To find more recent info we might have, you can check out our boil water notice page, the city's water provider website, or Kankakee's local Twitter account.

According the EPA’s ECHO database, from April 30, 2019 to June 30, 2022, Kankakee's water utility, Aqua Illinois-Kankakee, had 0 violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act. For more details on the violations, please see our violation history section below. This assessment is based on the Aqua Illinois-Kankakee water system, other water systems in the city may have different results.

While tap water that meets the EPA health guidelines generally won’t make you sick to your stomach, it can still contain regulated and unregulated contaminants present in trace amounts that could potentially cause health issues over the long-run. These trace contaminants may also impact immunocompromised and vulnerable individuals.

The EPA is reviewing if it’s current regulations around pollutant levels in tap water are strict enough, and the health dangers posed by unregulated pollutants, like PFAS.

Water Quality Report for Kankakee Tap Water

The most recent publicly available numbers for measured contaminant levels in Kankakee tap water are in its 2020 Water Quality Report. As you can see, there are levels which the EPA considers to be acceptable, but being below the maximum allowable level doesn’t necessarily mean the water is healthy.

Lead in tap water, for example, is currently allowed at up to 15ppb by the EPA, but it has set the ideal goal for lead at zero. This highlights how meeting EPA standards doesn’t necessarily mean local tap water is healthy.

EPA regulations continue to change as it evaluates the long term impacts of chemicals and updates drinking water acceptable levels. The rules around arsenic, as well as, lead and copper are currently being re-evaluated.

There are also a number of "emerging" contaminants that are not currently. For example, PFAS (Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances), for which the EPA has issued a health advisory. PFAS are called "forever chemicals" since they tend not to break down in the environment or the human body and can accumulate over time.

We recommend looking at the contaminants present in Kankakee's water quality reports, or getting your home's tap water tested to see if you should be filtering your water.

Kankakee Tap Water Safe Drinking Water Act Violation History - Prior 10 Years

Below is a ten year history of violations for the water system named Aqua Illinois-Kankakee for Kankakee in Illinois. For more details please see the "What do these Violations Mean?" section below.

For the compliance period beginning Jan. 1, 2019, Kankakee had 1 non-health based Safe Drinking Water Act violation with the violation category being Monitoring and Reporting, more specifically, the violation code was Follow-up Or Routine LCR Tap M/R which falls into the Chemicals rule code group, and the Lead and Copper Rule rule code family for the following contaminant code: Lead and Copper Rule.

Is there Lead in Kankakee Water?

Based on the EPA’s ECHO Database, 90% of the samples taken from the Kankakee water system, Aqua Illinois-Kankakee, between sample start date and sample end date, were at or below, 0.0058 mg/L of lead in Kankakee water. This is 38.7% of the 0.015 mg/L action level. This means 10% of the samples taken from Kankakee contained more lead.

While Kankakee water testing may have found 0.0058 mg/L of lead in its water, that does not mean your water source has the same amount. The amount of lead in water in a city can vary greatly from neighborhood to neighborhood, or even building to building. Many buildings, particularly older ones, have lead pipes or service lines which can be a source of contamination. To find out if your home has lead, we recommend getting you water tested.

No amount of lead in water is healthy, only less dangerous. As lead accumulates in our bodies over time, even exposure to relatively small amounts can have negative health effects. For more information, please check out our Lead FAQ page.

Are there PFAS in Kankakee Tap Water?

Currently, testing tap water for PFAS isn’t mandated on a national level. We do have a list of military bases where there have been suspected or confirmed leaks. There appears to be at least one military base - Kankakee AASF / Readiness Center - near Kankakee with suspected leaks.

With many potential sources of PFAS in tap water across the US, the best information we currently have about which cities have PFAS in their water is this ewg map, which you can check to see if Kankakee has been evaluated for yet.

Our stance is better safe than sorry, and that it makes sense to try to purify the tap water just in case.

Kankakee SDWA Violation History Table - Prior 10 Years

Compliance Period Status Health-Based? Category Code Code Rule Code Contaminant Code Rule Group Code Rule Family Code
01/01/2019 - Resolved No Monitoring and Reporting (MR) Follow-up Or Routine LCR Tap M/R (52) Lead and Copper Rule (350) Lead and Copper Rule (5000) Chemicals (300) Lead and Copper Rule (350)

What do these Violations Mean?

Safe Drinking Water Act Violations categories split into two groups, health based, and non-health based. Generally, health based violations are more serious, though non-health based violations can also be cause for concern.

Health Based Violations

  1. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) - maximum allowed contaminant level was exceeded.
  2. Maximum residual disinfectant levels (MRDLs) - maximum allowed disinfectant level was exceeded.
  3. Other violations (Other) - the exact required process to reduce the amounts of contaminants in drinking water was not followed.

Non-Health Based Violations

  1. Monitoring and reporting violations (MR, MON) - failure to conduct the required regular monitoring of drinking water quality, and/or to submit monitoring results on time.
  2. Public notice violations (Other) - failure to immediately alert consumers if there is a serious problem with their drinking water that may pose a risk to public health.
  3. Other violations (Other) - miscellaneous violations, such as failure to issue annual consumer confidence reports or maintain required records.

SDWA Table Key

Field Description
Compliance Period Dates of the compliance period.
Status Current status of the violation.
  • Resolved - The violation has at least one resolving enforcement action. In SDWIS, this indicates that either the system has returned to compliance from the violation, the rule that was violated was no longer applicable, or no further action was needed.
  • Archived - The violation is not Resolved, but is more than five years past its compliance period end date. In keeping with the Enforcement Response Policy, the violation no longer contributes to the public water system's overall compliance status. Unresolved violations are also marked as Archived when a system ceases operations (becomes inactive).
  • Addressed - The violation is not Resolved or Archived, and is addressed by one or more formal enforcement actions.
  • Unaddressed - The violation is not Resolved or Archived, and has not been addressed by formal enforcement.
show details
Health-Based? Whether the violation is health based.
Category Code
The category of violation that is reported.
  • TT - Treatment Technique Violation
  • MRDL - Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level
  • Other - Other Violation
  • MCL - Maximum Contaminant Level Violation
  • MR - Monitoring and Reporting
  • MON - Monitoring Violation
  • RPT - Reporting Violation
show details
Code A full description of violation codes can be accessed in the SDWA_REF_CODE_VALUES (CSV) table.
Contaminant Code A code value that represents a contaminant for which a public water system has incurred a violation of a primary drinking water regulation.
Rule Code Code for a National Drinking Water rule.
  • 110 - Total Coliform Rule
  • 121 - Surface Water Treatment Rule
  • 122 - Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
  • 123 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
  • 130 - Filter Backwash Rule
  • 140 - Ground Water Rule
  • 210 - Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 220 - Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 230 - Total Trihalomethanes
  • 310 - Volatile Organic Chemicals
  • 331 - Nitrates
  • 332 - Arsenic
  • 333 - Inorganic Chemicals
  • 320 - Synthetic Organic Chemicals
  • 340 - Radionuclides
  • 350 - Lead and Copper Rule
  • 410 - Public Notice Rule
  • 420 - Consumer Confidence Rule
  • 430 - Miscellaneous
  • 500 - Not Regulated
  • 111 - Revised Total Coliform Rule
show details
Rule Group Code Code that uniquely identifies a rule group.
  • 120 - Surface Water Treatment Rules
  • 130 - Filter Backwash Rule
  • 140 - Groundwater Rule
  • 210 - Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 220 - Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 230 - Total Trihalomethanes
  • 310 - Volatile Organic Chemicals
  • 320 - Synthetic Organic Chemicals
  • 330 - Inorganic Chemicals
  • 340 - Radionuclides
  • 350 - Lead and Copper Rule
  • 400 - Other
  • 500 - Not Regulated
  • 110 - Total Coliform Rules
  • 410 - Public Notice Rule
  • 420 - Consumer Confidence Rule
  • 430 - Miscellaneous
show details
Rule Family Code Code for rule family.
  • 100 - Microbials
  • 200 - Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule
  • 300 - Chemicals
  • 400 - Other
  • 500 - Not Regulated
show details

For more clarification please visit the EPA's data dictionary.

Kankakee Water - Frequently Asked Questions

To contact customer service for the Kankakee water provider, Aqua Illinois-Kankakee, please use the information below.
By Mail: 1000 S. SCHUYLER AVE.
Already have an account?

Existing customers can login to their Aqua Illinois-Kankakee account to pay their Kankakee water bill by clicking here.

Want to create a new account?

If you want to pay your Aqua Illinois-Kankakee bill online and haven't made an account yet, you can create an account online. Please click here to create your account to pay your Kankakee water bill.

Want to pay without an account?

If you don't want to make an account, or can't remember your account, you can make a one-time payment towards your Kankakee water bill without creating an account using a one time payment portal with your account number and credit or debit card. Click here to make a one time payment.

Starting Your Service

Moving to a new house or apartment in Kankakee means you will often need to put the water in your name with Aqua Illinois-Kankakee. In order to put the water in your name, please click the link to the start service form below. Start service requests for water bills typically take two business days.

Start Service Form

Want to create a new account?

Leaving your house or apartment in Kankakee means you will likely need to take your name off of the water bill with Aqua Illinois-Kankakee. In order to take your name off the water bill, please click the link to the stop service form below. Stop service for water bills requests typically take two business days.

Stop Service Form


Kankakee tap water
  • Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility 28% Low
  • Water Pollution 39% Low
  • Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility 72% High
  • Water Quality 61% High

The above data is comprised of subjective, user submitted opinions about the water quality and pollution in Kankakee, measured on a scale from 0% (lowest) to 100% (highest).

Related FAQS

Kankakee Water Quality Report (Consumer Confidence Report)

The EPA mandates that towns and cities consistently monitor and test their tap water. They must report their findings in an annual Consumer Confidence Report. Below is the most recent water quality report from Kankakee's Water. If you would like to see the original version of the report, please click here.


2020 Water Quality Report*

Aqua Illinois - Kankakee, PWSID# IL0915030

Este informe contiene información muy importante sobre su agua de beber.

Tradúzcalo o hable con alguien que lo entienda bien.

About Your Drinking Water

Aqua Illinois, Inc. (Aqua) is pleased to provide you with its 2020 Consumer Confidence Report for the Kankakee Division (public water supply ID# IL0915030), which contains important information about your drinking water. The report summarizes the quality of water Aqua, Kankakee provided in 2020 - including details about water sources, what the water at your tap contains, and how it compares to standards set by regulatory agencies. We are pleased to report that we were in compliance with all water quality regulations in 2020. Although the report lists only those regulated substances that were detected in your water, we test for more than what is reported. This report is a summary of our activities during 2020 and earlier. If you have any questions about the information in this report, please call Melissa Kahoun at 815.614.2032 or visit our website at

Source of Supply

Water for the Kankakee Division comes from the Kankakee River, a surface water source. The Source Water Assessment for the Kankakee River has been completed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA). Information provided by this assessment indicates our water supply to be susceptible to contamination. Mandatory treatment for a surface water supply includes coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. (All surface water sources have been assessed as susceptible to contamination by the IEPA.) Potential sources of contamination include point source and non-point source pollution such as agricultural and urban runoff. A copy of this report can be obtained by calling Melissa Kahoun at 815.614.2032 or on the website

The sources of drinking water (both tap water and bottled water) include rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, springs, and wells. As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and radioactive material, and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity.

Contaminants that may be present in source water include:

  • Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife.
  • Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally occurring or result from urban storm runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming.
  • Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, stormwater runoff, and residential uses.
  • Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organics, are byproducts of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater runoff, and septic systems.
  • Radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally occurring or be the result of oil and gas production and mining activities.

In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribes regulations that limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water, which must provide the same protection for public health.

Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800.426.4791).

Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. EPA/Centers for Disease Control guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800.426.4791).


The following table lists regulated contaminants that were detected during 2020 in your water system. The state allows us to monitor for some contaminants less than once per year because the concentrations of these contaminants do not change frequently. Some of our data, though representative, are more than one year old.

Water Source: Kankakee River

Municipalities served: City of Kankakee, Village of Bourbonnais, Village of Aroma Park, Village of Bradley, Village of Grant Park, Village of Limestone, Village of Manteno, Village of University Park and portions of the townships of Limestone, Bourbonnais, Kankakee, Manteno, Otto, Rockville, St. Anne, Summer, Yellowhead and Aroma.

2020 Water Quality Data: Aqua Illinois – Kankakee – PWSID#: IL0915030




Federal /







Range of





Major Sources in Drinking Water























DISINFECTANTS & DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS - For haloacetic acids and total trihalomethanes, compliance is based on a locational running annual average (LRAA) of test results, not a single sample result. The Level Detected is the highest LRAA. Chloramine compliance is based on a running annual average (RAA).The Range is the lowest and highest single sample result among all samples.

Chloramine, ppm

RAA = 3

2.8 - 3





Water additive used to control microbes

= 4

= 4








Haloacetic acids,

LRAA= 39


– 56.1





Byproduct of drinking water disinfection










Total Trihalo-

LRAA= 51


– 58.4





Byproduct of drinking water chlorination

methanes, ppb

















Barium, ppm



– 0.013





Erosion of natural deposits


















Erosion of natural deposits; Water

Fluoride, ppm



– 1.01





additive which promotes strong teeth;

Discharge from fertilizer and aluminum


















Iron, ppm


ND – 0.03

1.0 (a)




Erosion of natural deposits.









Manganese, ppb


ND – 1.3

150 (a)




Erosion of natural deposits.










Nitrate (Nitrogen),



– 1.7





Erosion of natural deposits.










Selenium, ppb



– 1.5





Erosion of natural deposits; Discharge

from mines.









Sodium, ppm



– 12

NA (b)

NA (b)



Erosion from naturally occurring deposits;

Used in water softener regeneration.

















Combined Radium,



– 1.09





Erosion of natural deposits

pCi/L 226/228


















Water Quality Data Footnotes:

  1. State Regulated Contaminants: IEPA has set an MCL for Iron, manganese and zinc for supplies serving a population of 1,000 or more. However, these contaminants are not currently regulated by the USEPA.
  2. There is no state or federal MCL for sodium. Monitoring is required to provide information to consumers and health officials that are concerned about sodium intake due to dietary precautions. People on a sodium-restricted diet should consult a physician about the level of sodium in water they drink














Major Sources in

and unit of







Drinking Water


Action Level















Copper, ppm







Corrosion of household

Lead, ppb

















LEAD: If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. Aqua is responsible for providing high quality drinking water but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at

TURBIDITY - Regulated at the water treatment plant: 95% of samples must be below 0.3 NTU.

Limit (Treatment Technique)

Lowest monthly % meeting limit

Highest single



measurement (1 NTU limit)





0.3 NTU




Soil Runoff






Turbidity is a measurement of the cloudiness of the water caused by suspended particles. We monitor it because it is a good indicator of water quality and the effectiveness of our filtration system.

Total Organic Carbon- The percentage of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal was measured each month and the system met all TOC removal requirements set by the IEPA.

2020 Violation Summary Table: None - We are pleased to report we were in compliance with all water quality parameters in 2020.


Monitoring for Cryptosporidium (a naturally occurring microbial pathogen) was conducted from October 2015 through September 2017 on raw (untreated) water samples from our intake on the Kankakee River. Cryptosporidium was detected in 8 of 24 raw water samples with a highest 12- month average count of 0.086 oocysts per liter. Our water treatment processes will remove Cryptosporidium, but complete removal of all organisms at all times cannot be guaranteed. For this reason, immuno-compromised individuals (people with weakened immune systems) are encouraged to consult their doctor regarding appropriate precautions to avoid infection.

Unregulated contaminant monitoring (UCMR4)

The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) require that once every 5 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issue a new list of no more than 30 unregulated contaminants to be monitored by public water systems (PWS). The Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) provides EPA and other interested parties with scientifically valid data on the occurrence of contaminants in drinking water. These data serve as a primary source of occurrence and exposure information that the agency uses to develop regulatory decisions. If a PWS monitoring for UCMR4 finds contaminants in its drinking water, it must provide the information to its customers in this annual water quality report. Below is a table of the results of our UCMR4 monitoring in 2019. All other contaminants tested during UCMR4 were Not Detected.

Unregulated Contaminants Detected During 2019

Unregulated Contaminant


Range of






Entry Point Samples




Manganese, ppb


ND – 0.63


Distribution Samples

HAA5, ppb


12.97 – 36.22


HAA6Br, ppb


3.58 – 13.61


HAA9, ppb


17.35 – 45.7



Water Quality Table Definitions:

Action Level (AL): The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements.

Date of Sample: Some contaminants are monitored less frequently than once a year. If any of these contaminants were detected the last time they were monitored, they are included in the table with the sample date.

Fluoride: Fluoride may help prevent tooth decay if administered properly to children but can be harmful in excess. Customers in the Kankakee water supply receive fluoridated water. For more information about fluoride in your tap water, call Aqua Illinois at 815.614.2032. This information may be helpful to you, your pediatrician, or your dentist in determining whether fluoride supplements or treatment are appropriate.

Level Found: For contaminants with annual or less frequent monitoring, this is the single level detected in the most recent monitoring period. For other contaminants, the level found is the annual average of multiple test results. If multiple locations were tested, the level found is the annual average for the location with the highest level. For Lead and Copper, see below.

Lead and Copper Level Found: Only the 90th percentile detection level from the most recent monitoring period of all approved sites sampled for each of these contaminants. The number of sites monitored and the frequency of monitoring is determined by the IEPA for every supply.

Locational Running Annual Average (LRAA): The average of sample analytical results for samples taken at a particular monitoring location during the previous four calendar quarters under the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL): The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to the MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology.

Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.

Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL): The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.

Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal (MRDLG): The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants.

NA: Not applicable.

ND: Not detected.

Nitrate: Nitrate in drinking water at levels above 10 ppm is a health risk for infants of less than six months of age. High nitrate levels in drinking water can cause blue baby syndrome. Nitrate levels may rise quickly for short periods of time because of rainfall or agricultural activity. If you are caring for an infant, you should ask advice from your health care provider.

pCi/L, picocuries/Liter: A unit of concentration for radioactive contaminants.

ppb: Parts per billion or micrograms per liter – or one ounce in 7,350,000 gallons of water.

ppm: Parts per million or milligrams per liter – or one ounce in 7,350 gallons of water.

PWSID: Public water supply identification number

Range of Detected Levels: The range of values from all tests during the CCR reporting year. For contaminants tested annually or less frequently, only one value is reported. For Lead and Copper, see above.

Running Annual Average (RAA): The average of all monthly or quarterly samples for the last year at all sample locations.

Treatment Technique: A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.

Turbidity: Monitored as a measure of treatment efficiency for removal of particles.

Our water systems are designed and operated to deliver water to our customers’ plumbing systems that complies with state and federal drinking water standards. This water is disinfected using chlorine, but it is not necessarily sterile. Customers’ plumbing, including treatment devices, might remove, introduce or increase contaminants in tap water. All customers, and in particular operators of facilities like hotels and institutions serving susceptible populations (like hospitals and nursing homes), should properly operate and maintain the plumbing systems in these facilities. You can obtain additional information from the EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800.426.4791.

*This consumer confidence report contains regulatorily required or recommended language, and nothing herein is, is intended as, nor should be construed as, a promise of or contract for payment or reimbursement of expenses incurred for any action you take on account of this consumer confidence report.


Aqua Illinois - Kankakee

EWG's drinking water quality report shows results of tests conducted by the water utility and provided to the Environmental Working Group by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, as well as information from the U.S. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History database (ECHO). For the latest quarter assessed by the U.S. EPA (January 2019 - March 2019), tap water provided by this water utility was in compliance with federal health-based drinking water standards.

Utility details

  • Serves: 76299
  • Data available: 2012-2017
  • Data Source: Surface water
  • Total: 24

Contaminants That Exceed Guidelines

  • Bromodichloromethane
  • Chloroform
  • Chromium (hexavalent)
  • Dibromochloromethane
  • Dichloroacetic acid
  • Nitrate
  • Nitrate and nitrite
  • Radium%2C combined (-226 & -228)
  • Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)
  • Trichloroacetic acid

Other Detected Contaminants

  • 1%2C4-Dioxane
  • Barium
  • Bromoform
  • Chloromethane
  • Chromium (total)
  • Dibromoacetic acid
  • Fluoride
  • Haloacetic acids (HAA5)
  • Molybdenum
  • Monobromoacetic acid
  • Monochloroacetic acid
  • Selenium
  • Strontium
  • Vanadium


Always take extra precautions, the water may be safe to drink when it leaves the sewage treatment plant but it may pick up pollutants during its way to your tap. We advise that you ask locals or hotel staff about the water quality. Also, note that different cities have different water mineral contents.

Sources and Resources

Layer 1
Layer 1
Layer 1
Layer 1